3D Logo is an Apple IIGS Logo programming environment with a twist… you can draw in 3D, and with the included 3D glasses, the shapes you draw look like they’re hovering in mid-air! Logo is a classic language that’s easy to learn, even for young children, and the simple turtle graphics (where the child gives a turtle commands to move around and draw) make it fun to use.
Enter the Third Dimension
The days of staring at a flat screen are over. Now you can see true 3 dimensional pictures and movies on your computer!
And the best part is it’s simple. You see, both 3D Logo and HyperLogo use the Logo language, and have the turtle graphics commands you find in nearly all Logos. You can turn left. You can turn right. You can turn out of the screen…
What? Turn out of the screen?
OK, those other Logos can’t turn out of the screen. But ours really can. Turn the turtle out of the screen, move it forward, and you get a true 3 dimensional picture!
That may seem like a tall tale, so let me explain how it works. When you look at the world around you, you see two pictures — one with your left eye and one with your right. The pictures are from two slightly different places, and comparing the two pictures is how you see depth. To see what I mean, try holding a finger at arm’s length and cover first one eye, then the other. You’ll see the same finger against the same background, but it will move back and forth.
3D Logo and HyperLogo actually draw two different pictures when you ask them to draw a 3-D picture. One picture is red, and the other is blue. Using a special pair of glasses that comes with the program, you see a gray scale picture that leaps from the screen, or buries you picture deep inside the monitor.
So, how realistic is it? It’s good enough that two of our second grade test subjects actually reached out to grab a cube floating a few inches in front of the monitor!
Even if you don’t have a color monitor, or don’t want to create a true 3-D picture, our 3-D turtle can still be a lot of fun. On a normal 2-D display, you can still get a true perspective drawing using the 3-D commands.
Move Over Steven Spielberg
Imagine watching a flower grow or a rocket take off — in 3-D! You can create these effects and many more on your Apple IIGS.
You know how movies work. The projector puts a picture on the screen, then follows it about 1/30th of a second later with another, slightly different picture, then another, and so on. What you see is smooth motion.
3D Logo and HyperLogo do the same thing. Draw one picture. Add a frame to your movie, then draw another picture with things moved over just a bit. Add a few more frames, then click on the Play button. What you see is a smooth movie, right on your Apple IIGS.
You get all of the features you see here no matter which of our two Logos you pick. So what’s the difference?
3D Logo is our traditional Logo programming environment. It’s easy to get started — just type a command, and it’s executed right away.
The best part is that 3D Logo makes it incredibly easy to write stand-alone desktop programs. You don’t need stacks of manuals, and you don’t have to spend months studying and practicing. After learning a dozen or so commands, you can create complete desktop programs that run right from the Finder.
The Logo Language
With all of the other languages out there, it’s fair to ask what Logo is and why you should bother to learn it.
In a very real sense, Logo is the BASIC of the artificial intelligence world. It’s a simple, easy to learn language that just happens to hide awesome power for list processing. In fact, it handles lists and variables so much like the king of artificial intelligence languages, LISP, that our Logo was tested by working problems from a LISP textbook.
At the same time, Logo is a very easy language to learn. In fact, it’s so easy to learn that our local school started second graders on Logo.
One other feature has shaped how Logo is used. Logo includes turtle graphics, an easy to use graphics package that lets you start drawing right away. In fact, it’s turtle graphics that make Logo such a good language for young children: they can see what a program or command does.
Like all successful languages, the people who use Logo form a community with a lot of common interests. Just as LISP is the language of artificial intelligence, COBOL is the language of business, and C is the language of systems programmers, Logo is the language for educators. It’s a great language for other things, but Logo is used more often for young children than any other language — partly because it’s so easy to use, partly because of turtle graphics, and partly because Logo gently guides you into clear, logical problem solving.
All of which makes Logo a great language for movies, 3D graphics and fractals, just to mention a few possibilities.
Just like Logo, HyperStudio is used more often for young children than in any other setting, and for a lot of the same reasons. That’s why Roger Wagner picked HyperLogo as the standard scripting language for HyperStudio Mac and Windows &endash; and now it’s available for your Apple IIGS, too!
No kidding — it talks!
When you add Talking Tools to either of our Logos, you unlock several new commands.
First, there’s Say. Just type
And your computer really says, “Hello!”
You’re not going to confuse the computer with Robert Redford &endash; more like Robbie the Robot, but it’s easy to understand.
What? You wanted Cindy Crawford? Try
voice “female say “hello
Well, OK. It’s Carrie the Robot, not Cindy Crawford, but it’s still a distinctly feminine voice.
You can control how fast the computer talks, the pitch, and the volume. You can even teach the computer to say words that aren’t pronounces the way they are spelled. And you do it all from Logo &endash; either the stand-alone 3D Logo, or from inside HyperStudio with HyperLogo.
Logo can’t talk all by itself. To use the speech commands in 3D Logo or HyperLogo, you also need Talking Tools.
Talking Tools is really three things in one package.
First, you get the actual speech tools, developed by First Byte. They are an incredibly powerful set of tools that turn normal text into spoken words. 3D Logo and HyperLogo use these tools to talk.
Next, you get a complete set of interfaces and a tutorial, designed for programmers who want to add speech to their own programs. If you’re not a programmer, you can ignore most of the manual, but if you do happen to program in any Apple IIGS language that can call Apple’s tools, you can use Talking Tools to add speech to your own programs.
Finally, you get a simple, TextEdit based text editor, with a twist: It’s a talking editor!
So what happens if you don’t have Talking Tools? Nothing bad. In fact, nothing at all. 3D Logo and HyperLogo will still work just fine, but they will ignore the speech commands.
196 page spiral-bound manual with index and table of contents
Two 3.5″ disks
Apple IIgs with at least one 3.5″ drive
1.25 MB of memory
Color screen required for 3D displays
Talking Tools required for speech
System 6.0 (a System 6.0 boot disk is included with 3D Logo)